Detection Methods for Faecal Contamination Events: The Gap
Detection Methods for Faecal Contamination Events: The Gap
This review paper analyses the trends in pathogen detection and other recent developments in the field. The detection of pathogenic microorganisms is essential to end-users of water systems, particularly if the water is supporting life as an end-user. The outbreak of pathogenic waterborne disease is caused by coliforms and E. coli and as such these organisms need to be monitored for such events arising particularly as they are a health issue for humans. The conventional methods of choice have been media-based growth and culturing and multiple tube fermentation methods. Both of these methods are standard protocols and also take in excess of 48 hours to perform, meaning results are somewhat slow. Because the protocols take time, there are clearly issues with time to react to such contamination events, representing a golden opportunity to develop a sensor with near-real time capability. The review explores new and emerging methods that could potentially be developed into near-real time sensors. We have reviewed numerous techniques from immunological, fluorescence in-situ hybridisation, proteomics and genomics, biochemical and finally enzyme detection.
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